Have you ever thought about what could be the structure of aquatic lifestyle? You’ll be surprised to know that for most of the aquatic plants, water depths much in excess of about half a metre begin to make it difficult for them to maintain the active extrusion of oxygen through the roots and rhizomes, which is essential to the survival of the plant in what might otherwise be anoxic sediment. In greater water depths the plants use up too much energy in attempting to pass oxygen down their stalks to the root systems, and will eventually drown as the root zone becomes anoxic.
Wetlands are not restricted to the margins of lakes, of course: many are to be found fringing rivers, and indeed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, extensive coastal wetlands develop into thick stands of mangrove trees, which have an extraordinary adaptation that allows them to cope with tidal variations in submerged depth that will often exceed a metre. These are the so-called ‘tap roots’, which grow upwards from the buried root system to protrude into the open water column.
Until the mid-1980s it was tacitly assumed that the Earth’s deep subsurface was essentially devoid of life. However, it was eventually realized that the techniques commonly used to culture earth surface microbes in the laboratory simply didn’t work for the microbes typical of the deep subsurface. With the advent of molecular techniques, the characterization of deep subsurface microbes is now a lively field of endeavour. With regard to animals, although strange-looking fish (often blind and unpigmented) living in limestone cave systems have long been reported, most of the occurrences can be explained in terms of recent wash-in of river species.
Limestone caves, however, are atypical of the majority of groundwater flow systems, in which pores are generally rather small. It has only been in recent years that the realization has grown that some small animals (mainly invertebrates) are rather widespread in shallow groundwater systems, albeit typically in bodies of sand and gravel which are closely interconnected with surface watercourses. With the exception of some microbes that can live off the energy derived from inorganic geochemical reactions, most groundwater organisms are still dependent on the wash-in of nutrients from the Earth’s surface. Hence the absolute numbers of individuals do tend to decrease rapidly with depth and distance from rivers. Nevertheless, the total biomass, including the microbes, can reach levels similar to some lake environments.
As many groundwater species have evolved in localized pockets remote from wider populations, exoticism is the rule rather than the exception in groundwater ecology, and it is only now being realized that we may be inadvertently slaughtering large numbers of unique species simply by pumping wells and draining pore space.
Thankfully, you are not a culprit of taking lives of these aquatic creatures because you can directly get water from your regular water supplier – Northumbrian Water. If you have any problems with the water supply in your home – be it about paying your water bills, any water leakage in your home or getting foul smelling water – feel free to reach their team at Northumbrian Water Contact Number, so there dedicated team can fix this issues for you.